|SUBJECT NAME||Enzyme Technology & Biotransformation|
PART A UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION Introduction to enzymes, Classification, Sources, Mechanism of enzyme action. Strategies of purification of enzymes, criteria of purity, molecular weight determination and characterization of enzymes. 06 Hours UNIT 2: BIOCATALYSTS Advantages of enzymes vs chemical catalysts, Isolated Enzymes versus whole cell systems, enzymes in fermentation, Biocatalytic Application, Enzyme catalysis (Acid-base, Covalent, Metal ion catalysis, Substrate strain & entropy effects) Mechanism of coenzymes ( NAD/NADP, FAD/FADH2, PLP, Coenzyme A, TPP, Biotin) 08 Hours UNIT 3: ENZYMES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE Acetylcholinesterase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE Inhibitors, HMG Co A reductase inhibitors, pseudocholinesterase, 5 -nucleotidase (5NT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), CKisoforms, immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) and chymotrypsin; amylase isoenzymes, 06 Hours UNIT 4: ENZYMATIC TECHNIQUES Enzyme and isoenzyme measurement methods with two examples (fixed incubation and kinetic methods); Methods for investigating the kinetics of Enzyme catalysed reactions – Initial velocity studies, rapid-reaction techniques. Standardization and optimization methods, stability of enzymes. 06 Hours PART B UNIT 5: IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES Techniques of enzyme immobilization; kinetics of immobilized enzymes, effect of solute, partition & diffusion on the kinetics of immobilized enzymes, design and configuration of immobilized enzyme reactors; applications of immobilized enzyme technology, Economic argument for immobilization. 08 Hours 38 UNIT 6: ENZYMATIC TRANSFORMATION Reaction engineering for enzyme-catalyzed biotransformations. Catalytic antibodies. Biocatalysts from extreme Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic microorganisms (extremozymes). The design and construction of novel enzymes, artificial enzymes, Biotransformation of drugs (hydroxylation of Steroids), Host Guest Complexation chemistry, enzyme design using steroid templates. 06 Hours UNIT 7: MEDICAL APPLICATIONS Importance of enzymes in diagnostics, Enzyme pattern in diseases like Myocardial infarctions (SGOT, SGPT & LDH). Isoenzymes (CK, LD, ALP). Use of isozymes as markers in cancer and other diseases. Enzymes in immunoassay techniques. Therapeutic enzymes. Inborn errors of metabolism. 06 Hours UNIT 8: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Enzymes used in detergents, use of proteases in food, leather and wool industries; methods involved in production of glucose syrup from starch (using starch hydrolyzing enzymes), production of maltose and sucrose, glucose from cellulose, uses of lactase in dairy industry, glucose oxidase and catalase in food industry; Restriction enzymes and DNA ligases. 06 Hours
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