|SUBJECT NAME||Downstream Process Technology|
PART A UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION Role and importance of downstream processing in biotechnological processes. Problems and requirements of byproduct purification. Economics of downstream processing in Biotechnology. Cost cutting strategies, Characteristics of biological mixtures, Process design criteria for various classes of byproducts (high volume, low value products and low volume, high value products), Physico-chemical basis of different bio-separation processes. 04 Hours UNIT 2. PRIMARY SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Cell disruption methods for intracellular products, removal of insolubles, biomass (and particulate debris) separation techniques; flocculation and sedimentation, Centrifugation (ultra and differential) and filtration methods. 07 Hours UNIT 3. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES Principle and Applications of Electrophoresis - their types, Types of staining, Iso-electric focusing, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay). 05 Hours UNIT 4. PRODUCT SEPARATION TECHNIQUES - CLASSICAL Distillation, Liquid - liquid extraction, Absorption and Adsorption, Evaporation. 10 Hours PART B UNIT 5. MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES Membrane – based separations theory; Design and configuration of membrane separation equipment; Solute polarization and cake formation in membrane ultra filtration – causes, consequences and control techniques; Applications: Use of membrane diffusion as a tool for separating and characterizing naturally occurring polymers; enzyme processing using ultra filtration membranes; separation by solvent membranes; reverse osmosis. 08 Hours UNIT 6. ENRICHMENT OPERATIONS Precipitation methods with salts, organic solvents, and polymers, extractive separations. Aqueous two-phase extraction, supercritical extraction; In situ product removal / integrated bio-processing. 06 Hours UNIT 7. PRODUCT RESOLUTION / FRACTIONATION Adsorptive chromatographic separation processes, Electrophoretic separations, hybrid separation technologies, Dialysis; Crystallization. 04 Hours UNIT 8. PRODUCT RECOVERY - CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Partition chromatography - Single dimensional (Both Ascending and Descending) and two dimensional chromatography - Thin layer chromatography, Gas liquid Chromatography, Adsorption Chromatography: Adsorption column chromatography and TLC. Ion Exchange Chromatography: cation Exchange and anion Exchange chromatography. Gel Filtration Chromatography, Hydrophobic interaction chromatography, Affinity Chromatography, High Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) – analytical and preparative 10 Hours
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